Pisgat Zeev/Neve Yaakov schools have been receiving special funding from Shloshim Yeeshuvim for several years to train specialist teachers for non-reader students, mostly in the elementary schools. Last year, I was involved in the project as a non-reader teacher for one school, as well as my work in Pisgat Zeev High School for non-readers and very weak students in 10th through 12th grade, which received partial funding from the project.
This year, as madreecha for the non-reader teachers, I began working with the specialist to develop guidelines for the project reflecting the teachers' experience and our goals. The guidelines include a definition of non-readers, possible models for implementing the program and guidelines for implementation and running a program. Lastly, we are in the process of monitoring ourselves on implementing the guidelines, as well as documenting the progress of students and the project as a whole.
This material has not yet been endorsed by the project or the Ministry of Education--it is still in the planning stages, so I take responsibility for any criticism, problems or questions. I am posting it to aid other teachers and administrators in setting up similar programs, and hopefully start a dialogue about projects of this nature. Feel free to contact me.
December 1997Corrected 8-28-97
Definition of a "non-reader" in need of reading recovery classes:
- unable to recognize and sound out letter-sound connections for single consonants
- unable to recognize and sound out letter-sound connections for some consonant blends
- unable to blend consonants and vowels in simple one syllable words (cvc, ccvc, cvcc
- unable to distinguish among short vowels, and long and short vowels that follow rules
- unable to recognize simple vocabulary that follows basic rules, and other words that are used on a regular basis, in the context of pictures and sentences, and comprehend the meaning of phrases and sentences that include those words, including:
- generally known animals,
- typical first names of Israeli students,
- numbers from 1-10,
- basic colors,
- basic classroom equipment,
- basic prepositions (to, in, at, on, under, for, with)
- basic adjectives (e.g. good, bad, sad, angry) and
- additional basic items that are identified by regular teachers as minimal requirements for 4th grade students
Models for Reading Recovery In or Out of
In Class Out of Class 1. Special teacher assists students in regular lesson X 2. Special class of reading recovery only X 3. Individual tutoring X X
*Student can be assisted through all three models concurrently or consecutively
Issues to be decided between regular and reading recovery teacher--for each student Who has responsibility? RR teacher Regular teacher Both Assessment Curriculum Method of Instruction Activities Material Evaluation Classroom Management Division of Labor Parental Contact Contact with homeroom & other teachers
Guidelines for Reading Recovery Program--1997/98
8/27/97; finalized 10/97 with changes 11/3/97
Unless otherwise agreed by the regular classroom teacher and special teacher:
1. Assessment: Assessment of students for reading recovery program be will done by the special teacher in consultation with the regular teacher
2. Models of reading recovery: All three models for reading recovery (i.e. special teacher assisting in regular lesson; special class for reading recovery only; and individual tutoring) will operate in each school, to the extent that hours are available, in accordance with approval by principal and home room teacher.
3. Individual Student Plan: A plan will be designed for each student following assessment that addresses methods (or models) of reading recovery, and determines who bears responsibility for the student. This plan will be updated each month until the student returns to the classroom. Regular follow-up of a former student will conducted by ____________________.
4. Reading must be primary problem: Students may be selected for the reading recovery program only if their primary problem relates to difficulties with reading. Students whose primary problem relates to emotional or behavioral difficulties, but who are able to read, will not be referred to the project.
5. Special reading class limit: No more than six students can be placed in a special class at one time.
6. Fifth and sixth grade only: Only students from the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth grade students may be provided with special reading recovery interventions.
7. Responsibility for reading recovery students in special classes: The reading recovery teacher will be responsible for all curriculum, method of instruction, activities, material and management for special classes and individual tutoring for reading recovery students, in coordination with the regular teacher. Other issues relating to special classes and tutoring will be decided by the regular teacher and reading recovery teacher together.
8. Responsibility for reading recovery students in regular classes: The regular classroom teacher will be responsible for curriculum, method of instruction, activities and material for all activities taking place in the regular classroom. The regular teacher can request assistance from the reading recovery teacher for preparation of special activities and material for weaker students.
Each regular classroom teacher will prepare special material and activities for weaker students who are in the reading recovery program, or have completed the program. The material and activities will be on the same subject matter and include some of the same curriculum goals as regular classroom instruction, but will be geared to weaker students.
9. Evaluation: Evaluation of reading recovery students will be noted on the student's records, in accordance with school policy. Reading recovery students will be evaluated based upon their progress in reading recovery classes, and their progress with regular classroom material that is designed for their level. Students will not be evaluated according to standards for regular students.
10. Contact with parents and others: Wherever possible, the regular classroom teacher shall maintain contact with parents and homeroom teachers on any problems and progress relating to students in the reading recovery program.
11. Record-keeping by reading recovery teachers: Reading recovery teachers will be responsible for developing and maintaining an individual plan for each student in the reading recovery program. The plan will be updated immediately after each special class, after work in the regular classroom, after special tutoring sessions or at least on a weekly basis.
The plan must include the following:
a. progress in letter and word awareness including recognition and production of single consonants and vowels, recognition and some prodcution of consonant and vowel combinations, recognition of word splitting, and recognition and some production of whole words.
b. progress in work production and behavior including motivation to learn, willingness to perform activities and assignments in and out of class, participation in special and regular classroom activities, and progress toward independent learning. If students exhibit special learning, behavioral or emotional problems including but not limited to problems with concentration, disruption of class or group work, writing problems, speech or listening problems, progress will be noted for these areas. All students should be required to be responsible for their own learning and the reading recovery teacher should make regular progress notes on the student's arrival on time, readiness to work, bringing books and supplies, completing homework, and other issues for each work session.
c. portfolio/sample work--the reading recovery teacher should assure that a portfolio, or notebook, folder or other file is kept on each reading recovery student with samples of assessments, student work, cassettes, homework, notebooks, projects and other material produced by the student for all stages of the reading recovery process.
d. Conferences with students--the reading recovery teacher will meet with the student at regular intervals to review work in the portfolio and progress. The student should be involved in evaluating his or her own progress and setting new learning and behavioral goals. Notations on these conferences should be kept in the student's individual plan.
12. Student consent; parental objection; use of reading recovery program in cases of behavioral problems--If it is determined that a student needs assistance in the reading recovery program, the reading recovery teacher should explain the program to the student. Placement in the program should occur only with the student's consent. If a student does not wish to be involved with the program, the reading recovery teacher will report this to the regular classroom teacher. The student will not be involved in special activities without direction from the principal.
If a student wishes to discontinue work in the reading recovery program, the reading recovery teacher and regular teacher will meet with the student to decide continuation of the student in the program.
Parental objection to the reading recovery program will be directed to the regular classroom teacher and the principal. The reading recovery teacher can be asked to advise teachers and the principal regarding parental objections.
A student can be removed from the reading recovery program without his consent for disruptive behavior. All attempts will be made to manage such behavior so that the student can be maintained in the program, with use of individual sessions wherever possible. Upon successful completion of the program, the student can be returned to the regular classroom, with his or her consent. If the student objects, the regular classroom teacher will advise the reading recovery teacher of continuation in the program.
The reading recovery program will not be used as a punishment or time-out for students who are disruptive in regular classrooms, or for those students who are able but who are unwilling to perform as required in the regular classroom.
Prepared by Ellen H.-Serfaty for the RR program, Pisgat Zeev/Neve Yakov, Shloshim Yeshuvim, Novemer 1997
PREPARATION FOR RR MONITORING
(To be filled in by RR teacher prior to monitoring visit)
RR Teacher: _________________ Date/School Visit:______________
List your RR groups and number of students in each group, and give each group a letter designation (A,B,C...). Refer to these groups when you answer the questions.
How are you implementing the guidelines for the RR Program adopted in November?
You are being asked to evaluate your program on each of the 12 guidelines adopted by the project:
2. Models of Reading Recovery
3. Individual Student Plan
4. Reading must be the primary problem
5. Special reading class limit
6. Fifth and sixth grade only
7. Responsibility for reading recovery students in special classes
8. Responsibility for reading recovery students in regular classes
10. Contact with parents and others
11. Record-keeping by reading recovery teachers
12. Student consent; parental objection; use of reading recovery program in cases of behavioral problems
- When was your first assessment completed to determine eligibility of students in program?
- What assessment instrument did you use? Does it contain all elements for the "non-reader" definition?
- When did you consult with the regular teacher?
- Do all students fit the definition of "non-reader" adopted by the program?
- How and when do you update assessments to determine continued elibigibility?
2. Models of reading recovery: What model(s) of RR do you use in your school? How did you, your principal and/or regular teachers come to a decision about the models? What decisions have you reached with regular classroom teacher regarding responsibility for the following:
- Provide a sample assessment instrument/checklist:
3. Individual Student Plans:
- Method of Instruction
- Classroom Management
- Division of Labor
- Parental Contact
4. Reading as primary problem:
- Do you have a plan for each student with the goal of re-entry in the classroom?
- Who follows-up the progress of each student while in the regular classroom?
- Are the students' needs updated each month?
- Who follows-up the students' progress once the child returns to the classroom?
- Provide example of student plans:
Have you encountered problems with students being included in RR group whose problem is not primarily a reading problem? Give examples of this and how it was resolved in your school? Do problems still exist? What do you recommend?
5. Special reading class limit:
Do you have any classes with more than six students? If not, did you have problems implementing this guideline? How did you resolve it? If so, do you think more than six students is appropriate for the RR group? Do you need assistance resolving this problem?
6. Fifth and Sixth grade only: Except in those schools that have 7th and 8th grade classes, are you being asked to teach other than 5th and 6th grade students (as part of the project)? Have you ever had a problem with this guideline?
7. Responsibility for reading recovery students in special classes: Are you responsible for all facets of work in your special groups? (See question 2 above, Models...). Please discuss curriculum, method of instruction, activities, material and management for special classes and individual tutoring. Describe any problems in these areas and how you have tried to resolve them.
8. Responsibility for reading recovery students in regular classes: Discuss any problems you have encountered regarding requests to prepare material for regular classes? Are RR students receiving special material (prepared by the regular classroom teacher) for the regular curriculum? Have you offered advice to regular teachers? Are special non-reader elements of curriculum materials being used, e.g Changing Channels Workbook A and Teacher's Guide?
9. Evaluation: Has your school adopted a new policy for evaluating reading recovery students? How is evaluation noted in school records? Are they evaluated according to progress in RR groups and with special material in regular classes, or according to the standards designed for regular students? Are special assessments provided to RR students?
10. Contact with parents and others: Who contacts parents about RR student problems? How is information communicated among teachers?
11. Record-keeping by reading recovery teachers:
Do all your RR students have an individual plan? Describe/give an example of a plan. How do you note progress on the following areas?
Components of plan How progress is documented (including short and long-term follow-up) How often is progress on all/relevant areas noted in student plan Progress in letter and
1. single consonants 2. single vowels 3. consonant combinations 4. vowel combinations 5. word splitting 6. whole words as listed in "non-reader" definition Progress in work production and behavior 1. motivation to learn 2. willingness to perform activities and assignments in class 3. willingness to do homework 4. participation in RR groups 5. paritipation and work in regular classroom 6. progress toward independent learning 7. progress with special problems (concentration; disruption of group/class work; special reading, writing, speech or listening problems) 8. arrival on time, readiness to work, bringing books and supplies 9. other special issues Portfolio/sample work 1. Do you keep a portfolio/file on each student? 2. Are assessments, student work, cassettes, homework, notebooks, projects or other material kept in the file? 3. Is the portfolio/file used in regular conferences with the student? 4. Is the studeninvolved in evaluating his own progress?
12. Student consent; parental objection; use of RR program in cases of behavioral problems:
- Have you explained the reading recovery program to each student? Have the consented to being included?
- What happens when a student doesn't want to be involved in the program?
- What happens when a student wants to discontinue involvement in the program?
- What happens when a parent objects to student involvement in the program?
- Have you had problems with students' disruptive behavior inthe RR program? What is the process to resolve this?
- Have you tried to remove students for disruptive behavior?
- Have students objected to removal from the RR group after successful completion? What happened?
- Has the RR program been used as a punishment or time-out for disruptive students or uncooperative students?
- Has your school incorporated any other methods to insure the rights of the RR student?